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十大天然有机肥料  

2015-11-05 11:54:25|  分类: 庭院蔬菜 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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10 Natural Fertilizers to Replace Chemical Fertilizers

These 10 fertilizers derive from natural sources and can enhance the fertility of the soil as well as the nutrition of the crops. Prior to add a fertilizer-natural or otherwise-to your garden bed, it’s advised that you’ve your soil tested for nutrient levels and pH.

这10个肥料源于天然来源和可以提高土壤的肥力以及作物的营养。在给你的花坛施肥(天然的或其它的)之前,建议你检测土壤的营养水平和pH值。

organicfertilizer
It’s particularly crucial to find out the pH level before adding phosphorous fertilizers because phosphorous is merely available at a relatively limited pH range. Adding more phosphorous to an area with the wrong pH will tie up the nutrient in the soil and not make it accessible to the plants. Not to mention, excessive nutrients can also add to run-off problems and produce pollution issues.

If you’re an organic farmer, make sure the fertilizer brands you use are on the Organic Materials Review Institute’s approved materials list. However, for home gardeners or small-scale farmers who aren’t certified organic but wish to use only natural fertilizers, the following fertilizers are regarded as organic, even if the particular brand you use isn’t on the list.

(1) Fish emulsion and hydrolyzed liquid fish 鱼乳状液和液体水解鱼
Processing fish or fish byproducts with heat or acid treatments creates fish emulsion. Fish emulsion is usually a pretty stinky fertilizer, but it’s a good source of all three macronutrients-nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium-with an N-P-K (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) ratio of 5-2-2.

Hydrolyzed liquid fish fertilizers are produced using enzymes instead of heat. The resulting product is not smelly and retains more trace vitamins and nutrients. The average N-P-K ratio for hydrolyzed fish fertilizers is 4-2-2.

(2) Liquid kelp 液体海带
Although the levels of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium found in liquid kelp are minimal, it is full of essential trace nutrients and also plant growth hormones that accelerate plant growth and improve flowering. Liquid kelp is created through the cold processing of this ocean plant. It is mixed with water and used on plants both as a soil drench and a foliar spray. The nutrients it contains are available immediately for plant use.

(3) Rock phosphate 磷矿石
A mineral rock powder, rock phosphate is a wonderful source of phosphorous, with an N-P-K ratio of 0-2-0. The phosphorous found in rock phosphate becomes more available the 2nd year after application, and phosphorous is most available within the soil if the pH ranges between 6.0 and 7.0. Be sure to test soil pH before adding rock phosphate. It is also a good source of calcium.

(4) Bone meal 骨粉
A byproduct of slaughtering facilities, bone meal is produced through the steam processing and pulverization of animal bones. Bone meal is an excellent high-phosphorus fertilizer with an average N-P-K ratio of 3-15-0. The phosphorous in bone meal takes a couple of months to become accessible to plants via microbial processes in the soil. It also contains calcium, another essential plant nutrient. Phosphorous is most available in soil with pH between 6.0 and 7.0, so be sure to test and adjust soil pH if necessary.

(5) Compost 堆肥
Both commercially produced compost and homemade compost benefit soil by including organic matter, providing food for beneficial microbial life, enhancing the soil’s water-holding capacity and gradually releasing plant nutrients. Composts made with high quantities of manure or biosolids (sewage sludge) may be high in salts and can burn plants, but composts made with primarily plant residues do not generally contain troublesome quantities of salt. A typical N-P-K ratio for compost is 2-1-1, though its exact nutritional content depends on many factors. Compost that smells like ammonia or is not yet fully decomposed should be allowed to finish breaking down to avoid damaging plants. Compost also contains many micronutrients needed for plant growth.

(6) Manure 粪肥
The nutrient content of manure relies upon many factors, including its age, source and the presence of bedding materials. Due to potential pathogen exposure, raw manure should be avoided. Manure should be a minimum of 180 days old or fully composted before it’s applied to growing areas. In addition to containing macronutrients, manure is also a great source of several trace nutrients essential for plant growth.

Most cattle and horse manures have an average N-P-K ratio of 1-0.5-0.5 while poultry manures are typically better high-nitrogen fertilizers (3-1-1 on average). The nutrients in manure are not immediately available to plants and can take up to several years to be released by soil microbes. In most cases, about 50 % of the total nitrogen is available the first year, with the remainder being released slowly over several subsequent seasons. Manure is also an excellent source of organic matter but can contain weed seeds.

(7) Cottonseed meal 柏子粉
Cottonseed meal is a high-nitrogen fertilizer with an average N-P-K ratio of 6-0.4-1.5. It takes many months to be processed by soil microbes and digested so that it can release the nutrients it contains. Organic farmers should seek out organic cottonseed meal because cotton is often a genetically modified crop and lots of pesticides are used during its growth.

(8) Blood meal 血粉
A byproduct of slaughtering facilities, blood meal is definitely a high-nitrogen fertilizer with an N-P-K ratio of 12-0-0. Simply because of its high ammonia content, inappropriate use or over-fertilizing might lead to burned foliage.

(9) Alfalfa meal 苜蓿粉
With an average N-P-K ratio of 2-1-2, alfalfa meal provides plants not just with these macronutrients but also many trace nutrients. It takes one to four months to be digested by the soil microbes and for the nutrients to become available.

(10) Feather meal 羽毛粉
Whilst it takes 4 months or longer to break down and release its nutrients, feather meal is a superb high-nitrogen fertilizer with an N-P-K ratio between 7-0-0 and 12-0-0. It is just a byproduct of poultry processing.

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